Monthly Archives: July 2014

The Benefits of Using Synthetic Turf Tee Lines: The Pros and Cons of Each Yarn—Polypropylene

By Scott Smockum

Polypropylene is the most common yarn used to manufacture synthetic turf found in driving range hitting mats. It is not only cost effective, but it can easily be considered a durable product. When thinking about a synthetic turf tee line dense enough to hold a tee, while keeping costs in mind, polypropylene is a great product. Although it does show signs of wear, the wear pattern in polypropylene is straight down. This allows users to stick a tee into the product throughout its life and will also stand tall enough to allow the club head to travel ‘down and through.’

Drawbacks in using the polypropylene would be the possibility of it leaving some green markings on the user’s clubs. Another disadvantage is increased colour loss. As the club head is chaffing the fibres with each impact, over time (three to five years, dependent on use) they will begin to fray and become lighter in appearance. In comparison, nylon does not wear down nearly as much and it can be said it has a much higher colour steadfast.

Read the full article: The Benefits of Using Synthetic Turf Tee Lines

Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle: Ideas for Establishing a Sustainable Urban Forest

By Alistair Johnston

Reduced emissions to decrease acid rain and a reduction in the use of de-icing salts are obvious choices, but public safety tends to supersede tree preservation on these issues. The introduction of municipal tree bylaws, increased vigilance, and an understanding of construction near trees has, and will continue to decrease the extent of human impact.

Mitigating the urban heat island effect through the use of green roof technologies, and reflective (high-albedo) paving are two methods that are now commonly implemented. Further, in an effort to recharge groundwater, permeable paved hard surfaces are often utilized. This allows for the percolation of water into the subsoil, thus making it available for uptake by adjacent root systems. Where feasible, the practise of an early spring wash for roadside trees will aid in reduced salt uptake.

Read the full article: Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle

Avoiding Issues with Seasonal Employment: Indefinite Duration Versus Fixed-Term Employment Contracts—What is the Difference?

By Chelsea Gibson, BA, LLB and Kevin Thompson, B.Sc.

In contracts of an indefinite duration, employment is one of continuous service and intended to last for an indefinite period of time, with no specified or foreseeable end to the relationship. This type of contract is accompanied by a number of rights and obligations, most notably the right to reasonable notice or pay in lieu, upon termination.

In fixed-term contracts, the employment relationship is intended to last for only a specific and definite length of time or until a specific project is completed. Once the term or project is finished, the fixed-term employment relationship ends. Such employees are often referred to as being in a ‘contract’ position. Where there is a validly constituted fixed-term contract, an employer is not required to provide the employee with reasonable notice since the employment relationship naturally comes to an anticipated end at either a specified time or upon the completion of a specified project.

Read the full article: Avoiding Issues with Seasonal Employment

Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle: Human Impact

By Alistair Johnston

Urban trees are often negatively impacted by those who benefit greatly from them, that is, humans. Poor planting practices, heavily compacted soils, utility pruning, improper maintenance, vandalism, mechanical injury from lawn equipment, or vehicle impact, are all sources of stress on tree health. Probably the most common and underappreciated human impact on trees is that of construction. Excavation associated with new buildings, pavements, and utility trenches often requires tree removal and/or results in severely damaged root systems.

Read the full article: Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle

Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle: Environmental Stressors

By Alistair Johnston

There are many environmental forces, both biotic (i.e. living), such as fungus, bacteria, and insects and abiotic (i.e. non-living), such as drought, salt, and mechanical injury), that have an impact on the successful establishment of trees in the urban setting.

Air, water, and soil pollution are prime stressors that constantly affect urban trees and impact the balance, which is important for overall health. Air pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO2), absorbed by the foliage, interfere with photosynthesis and respiration.

Salts, which mainly enter the urban environment because of winter de-icing, are extremely harmful to trees, and may be the most common and impactful abiotic disorder. Salt, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), impacts a tree through contact from salt spray and salt-contaminated soil. Salt spray damage is particularly noticeable adjacent to streets and highways where prevailing winds consistently batter exposed trees. The resulting appearance on conifers is a browning of the needles and on deciduous trees is sparse foliage cover, severely stunted growth or mass response growth commonly known as ‘witch’s broom.’ In many cases, extended or severe exposure results in mortality.

The negative forces of Mother Nature are enhanced by the urban environment because urban trees are not equipped to withstand severe weather conditions due to their diminished overall condition. For example, during the summer, the urban heat island effect, caused by the heating of hard surfaces, increases drought stress on trees. The effects of storm impact are often more severe because swirling winds accelerate as they pass by tall buildings. Also, flash flooding along tributaries receiving mass quantities of water from adjacent hard surfaces often uproots trees.

Read the full article: Growing Trees in the Urban Jungle